The objective of the Kyoto climate change conference in 1997 was to establish a legally binding international agreement, whereby all the participating nations commit themselves to tackling the issue of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions.
The target agreed upon was an average reduction of 5.2% from 1990 levels by the year 2012.
Bali Road Map --a two-year process to finalizing a binding agreement in 2009 in Copenhagen
* A shared vision for long-term cooperative action, with a long-term global goal for emission reductions.
* Enhanced national/international action on mitigation of climate change.
* Enhanced action on adaptation and technology development and transfer to support action on mitigation and adaptation.
* Enhanced action on the provision of financial resources and investment to support action on mitigation and adaptation and technology cooperation.
Copenhagen Climate Conference
Copenhagen Accord: class research time
* Endorses the continuation of the Kyoto Protocol
* Recognizes that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and emphasizes a "strong political will to urgently combat climate change"
* To prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system,
* Recognizes "the critical impacts of climate change and the potential impacts of response measures on countries particularly vulnerable to its adverse effects"
* States that "enhanced action and international cooperation on adaptation is urgently required and agrees that "developed countries shall provide adequate, predictable and sustainable financial resources, technology and capacity-building to support the implementation of adaptation action in developing countries"
* Agrees that developed countries (Annex I Parties) would "commit to economy-wide emissions targets for 2020" to be submitted by 31 January 2010 and agrees that these Parties to the Kyoto Protocol would strengthen their existing targets.
* Agrees that developing nations (non-Annex I Parties) would "implement mitigation actions" to slow growth in their carbon emissions, submitting these by 31 January 2010.
* Agrees that developing countries would report those actions once every two years via the U.N. climate change secretariat,
* Recognizes "the crucial role of reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests"
* Will use markets to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote mitigation actions.
* Developing countries, specially these with low-emitting economies should be provided incentives to continue to develop on a low-emission pathway
* States that "scaled up, new and additional, predictable and adequate funding as well as improved access shall be provided to developing countries... to enable and support enhanced action"
* Agrees that developed countries would raise $30 billion from 2010-2012
* Agrees a "goal" for the world to raise $100 billion per year by 2020
* Establishes a Copenhagen Green Climate Fund, as an operating entity of the financial mechanism, "to support projects, programs, policies and other activities in developing countries related to mitigation".
* Establishes a Technology Mechanism "to accelerate technology development and transfer...guided by a country-driven approach"
* Calls for "an assessment of the implementation of this Accord to be completed by 2015... This would include consideration of strengthening the long-term goal", for example to limit temperature rises to 1.5 degrees
Who are the lobbies or political interest groups who have been active in current climate talks?
Alliance of Small Island States - developing countries want leeway to expand emissions; want access to mitigation technology; worried about dramatic effects of warming for their survival
G77 States - want to avoid limitations on their economic growth
Big Oil Companies - want to protect economic interests; don't have seat at the table but have lobbied and paid Congressmen
OPEC Nations - petroleum lobby
African States - blame European countries - their continent has been ravaged by colonialism
Discussions become social justice discussions
Activist groups - Green Party, 350.org; Climate Justice Now;
European Union - ahead of the curve on ameliorating emissions
What was Obama's role in this process?
Industrializing countries (China, India) clandestine meeting brokered by U.S.
What level of limitation and sacrifice is acceptable or necessary?
Reading on BlackBoard:
"What has Posterity Ever Done for Me?" by Robert Heilbroner
Do we have a reason to sacrifice for the unknown future?
Continuation of Group Project Time for New Trier Proposals.